The existence of crime in a society is a challenge to its members due to its deleterious effect on the ordered social growth in fact, it leads to a colossal waste of human energy and an enormous economic loss. Therefore with the advance in the field of criminology and behavioural sciences, efforts are being constantly made to work out a commonly acceptable classification of crimes and criminals for providing a rational basis of punishment for various categories of offenders.
There are variety of crimes such as violent personal crimes occasional property crimes, occupational crimes, Political crimes, Public-Order crimes, conventional crimes, organized crimes, Professional crimes, White collar crimes, sexual crimes, crimes against property, person, decency, public order etc. Broadly speaking, these may be categorized into three heads, namely (i) offenses falling under code of criminal procedure (ii) offenses under Indian penal code and (iii) offenses under local or special laws or enactments
Some writers have preferred to classify crimes into legal, political, economic, social and miscellaneous crimes
1. Legal crimes can be termed as traditional crimes such as theft ,robbery, dacoity, rape, hurt and rioting etc
2. Political offenses are those which are motivated politically or committed in violence of the election laws or norms set out for the politicians in course of their political activities
3. Economic crimes include white collar offenses such as tax evasion, smuggling, prostitution, gambling, foreign exchange violations, offenses under the MRTP (Amendment) Act. 1991 etc.
4. Social crimes are those which are committed under social legislation such as the Child marriage Restraint Act, 1929; Civil rights Act 1976 ; Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1986 ; Independent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 ; Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act 1987. The dowry prohibition Act 1963 as amended in 1983 1986. Juvenile Justice Act, 1987 etc.
5. All other remaining crimes which are committed under local or special Acts, are termed as miscellaneous crimes for example, offenses under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954, Drugs Act consumers Protection Act, 1986, Prevention of Narcotic & Psychotrophie Substance Act, 1974 etc.
Classification of offences under IPC
under the Indian Penal Code, various offences have been classified into seven broad categories on statistical basis They are :-
(1) Offenses against person
(2) Offenses against property
(3) Offenses relating to documents
(4) Offenses effecting mental order
(5) Offenses against public tranquility
(6) Offenses against state
(7) Offenses relating to public servants
This classification seems to be more rational and elaborate from the point of view of administration of criminal law and penal justice